The composition of electric motorcycles includes: electric drive and control systems, driving force transmission and other mechanical systems, and working devices to complete predetermined tasks. The electric drive and control system is the core of the electric vehicle, and it is also the biggest difference from driving the vehicle with an internal combustion engine.
Electric motorcycle composition structure
The power supply provides electric energy for the driving motor of the electric motorcycle. The electric motor converts the electric energy of the power supply into mechanical energy, and directly drives the wheels and the working device through the transmission device. Today, the most widely used power source for electric vehicles is lead-acid batteries. However, with the development of electric vehicle technology, lead-acid batteries have been gradually replaced by other batteries due to their lower specific energy, slower charging speed and shorter life. The application of new power sources is being developed, which opens up broad prospects for the development of electric vehicles.
The function of the drive motor is to convert the electrical energy of the power supply into mechanical energy, and directly drive the wheels and working devices through the transmission device or directly. DC series motors are widely used in today’s electric vehicles. This motor has “soft” mechanical characteristics, which is very consistent with the driving characteristics of the car. However, due to the existence of commutation sparks, DC motors have low specific power, low efficiency, and large maintenance workload. With the development of motor technology and motor control technology, they will be gradually used by DC brushless motors (BCDM) and switched reluctance motors (SRM) and AC asynchronous motors are replaced.
Motor speed control device
The motor speed control device is set for the speed change and direction change of the electric vehicle. Its function is to control the voltage or current of the motor to complete the control of the motor’s driving torque and rotation direction.
In the previous electric vehicles, the speed regulation of the DC motor was realized by using series resistance or changing the number of turns of the motor field coil. Because its speed regulation is stepped, and it will produce additional energy consumption or the structure of the motor is complicated, it is rarely used today. Thyristor chopper speed regulation is widely used in electric vehicles today. It can achieve stepless speed regulation of the motor by uniformly changing the terminal voltage of the motor and controlling the current of the motor. In the continuous development of electronic power technology, it has also been gradually replaced by other power transistors (including GTO, MOSFET, BTR and IGBT, etc.) chopper speed regulation devices. From the perspective of technological development, with the application of new drive motors, the speed control of electric vehicles will be transformed into the application of DC inverter technology, which will become an inevitable trend.
In the rotation direction control of the drive motor, the DC motor relies on the contactor to change the current direction of the armature or magnetic field to realize the rotation direction conversion of the motor, which makes the Confucius circuit complicated and reduces reliability. When the AC asynchronous motor is used for driving, the change of the direction of the motor only needs to change the phase sequence of the three-phase current of the magnetic field, which can simplify the control circuit. In addition, the use of AC motors and its frequency conversion speed control technology makes the braking energy recovery control of electric vehicles more convenient and the control circuit simpler.
The function of the traveling device is to change the driving torque of the electric motor to the ground through the wheels to drive the wheels to travel. It has the same composition as other cars, consisting of wheels, tires and suspension.
Like other vehicles, the braking device of an electric vehicle is provided for deceleration or parking of the vehicle, and usually consists of a brake and its operating device. In electric vehicles, there are generally electromagnetic braking devices, which can use the control circuit of the drive motor to realize the power generation operation of the motor, and convert the energy during deceleration braking into the current for charging the battery, so as to be recycled.
The working device is specially set up by the industrial electric vehicle to complete the operation requirements, such as the lifting device, the gantry, and the fork of the electric forklift. The lifting of the fork and the tilting of the mast are usually done by a hydraulic system driven by an electric motor.
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Post time: May-27-2020